Sociology

One Personality Trait Predicts Domestic Nudity

Photo: Logan Bannatyne/Getty Images/iStockphoto

If you regularly read about psychological research, there’s a pretty good chance you’ve heard of the Big Five personality scale. It’s currently the most popular, recognized way in the field to gauge people’s personalities, and it breaks those personalities down into five factors: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and agreeableness.

One of the nice things about the Big Five is most of the terms lend themselves to fairly easy, intuitive understanding: When someone is agreeable or conscientious, we generally know what that means. But as Benjamin P. Chapman and Lewis R. Goldberg point out in a new paper in Personality and Individual Differences, this intuitive understanding can only get us so far — it doesn’t tell us all that much about what it actually means, in terms of day-to-day life, for someone to be low in neuroticism, or high in conscientiousness.

So Chapman and Goldberg decided to take an interesting approach to this subject. They found a data set from the ’90s in which some of the respondents both took a Big Five and also answered questions tied to the Act-Frequency Approach, designed to measure “mundane or incidental behaviors that make up everyday life.” The behaviors are all over the place: How often do you talk on a cell phone? Chew on a pencil? Use a sauna or a hot tub?

After employing some number-crunching, the researchers were able to come up with a list of which behaviors were most tied to which Big Five characteristics. You can view the entire table they published here, but to take a few examples: People high in agreeableness were more likely to sing in the shower; those high in conscientiousness were less likely to chew on a pencil (pencils don’t grow on trees); and those lower in neuroticism were less likely to diet to lose weight.

Perhaps the most interesting category, though, was intellect — which apparently is what some researchers call the openness-to-experience factor (side-gripe: this is a confusing double-name situation, since openness and intellect don’t intuitively feel like the same thing). Those higher in intellect, or openness to experience, were more likely to swear around other people, buy organic food, create art, eat spicy breakfasts, not follow a sports team closely, do car maintenance on their own, and to lounge around the house without clothes on.

It isn’t set in stone that if you score high on a given Big Five factor you’ll engage in certain behaviors, of course. But it’s still interesting to think about a personality test that can accurately gauge the likelihood you’ll live your life a certain way, especially when it comes to items, like driving while talking on the phone, or at a speed greater than 75 miles per hour (which those who are high in extraversion are more likely to do), that carry a health risk. Personality matters!

Originhttp://nymag.com/scienceofus/2017/05/personality-domestic-nudity.html?mid=facebook_scienceofus

Health And Safety · Perspective · Sociology

A Disturbing Number of Teenage Girls Are Asking for This Kind of Plastic Surgery

woman-wearing-red-bikini

Labiaplasty — a form of vaginal plastic surgery — is experiencing a spike in popularity among teenage girls. In 2015, 400 girls ages 18 and younger had a labiaplasty, an 80 percent increase from 222 procedures the previous year, the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported, according to The New York Times.

The surge prompted the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to release new guidelines for gynecologists on how to address concerns from teenage patients seeking labial surgery.

Lead author Julie Strickland, MD, MPH, and the chair of ACOG’s Adolescent Health Care Committee, stressed that OBGYNs should take into account that young patients’ desires to undergo plastic surgery might be rooted in body image issues rather than medical problems.

“Variety in the shape, size, appearance and symmetry of labia can have particularly distressing psychological effects on young women,” Strickland stated in a press release. “It’s one more body part that women are insecure about and it’s our job, as ob-gyns, to reassure our young patients.”

Labiaplasty isn’t a minor surgery.

“There is a wide range of what is considered ‘normal,'” Strickland said. “It’s important for ob-gyns to discuss sexual development and the variability of what breasts and genitalia may look like.” The guidelines also addressed the risks of the procedure — which Strickland emphasized are not minor, and can lead to complications including “pain, painful scarring, dyspareunia, hematoma, edema, and infection.”

She stressed that OBGYNs should screen young women interested in plastic surgery for body dysmorphic disorder and refer them to a mental health professional if necessary.

There’s growing pressure for teens to have a “designer vagina.”

As ATTN: has previously reported, labiaplasty procedures involve modifying the aesthetic of a woman’s vulva so that it appears smaller. There are three popular types of labiaplasty: rim labiaplasty — which involves trimming the labia minora, or small inner folds of the vulva, barbie labiaplasty — where the labia minora are shortened or removed so the vaginal lips are no longer visible, and a labial puff — injecting the labia majora to increase their size and hide inner vaginal lips.

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Though the procedure’s spike in popularity with teenagers is alarming, it isn’t news that the labiaplasty has become increasingly popular in recent years. Labiaplasties jumped 49 percent from 2013 to 2014, according to the American Society for Aesthetic Surgery.

While some vaginal surgeries are not cosmetic, a 2011 study found that 87 percent of women who underwent these surgeries did so for aesthetic reasons, rather than due to pain or vaginal function.

Plastic surgery is ‘trending’ with the teen crowd.

As ATTN: has previously reported, nearly 64,000 teens get plastic surgery each year according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Summer can be a particularly popular time to go under the knife, according to a New York Daily News report on the rising number of teens getting surgery on their ears, noses, breasts, and acne scars so they could return to school the following year with a drastic ‘new look.’

Teenagers’ bodies change rapidly during puberty, which can lead young women and men to seek out cosmetic surgeries to “fix” changes that occur due to normal hormonal shifts.

“This can lead an adolescent to question whether her body is normal and to express occasional dissatisfaction with her body’s appearance, size, symmetry, or function,” the ACOG observed. “There has been increasing patient interest in surgical modification of breast and genital tissues during the adolescent period.”

While some women seek vaginal plastic surgery due to pain during sex or exercise, the ACOG cautioned doctors to pay attention to whether patients’ desires were fueled primarily by body image issues, and to discourage young women from hastily going under the knife for these reasons alone.

Originhttps://www.attn.com/stories/7765/more-teen-girls-asking-for-labiaplasties?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=post&utm_campaign=internal

Sociology

Oral Sex Gap: Women Twice As Likely To ‘Go Down’ On Partners, Half As Likely To Get Pleasure From Receiving

Woman eating ice cream
Women are more likely to “go downtown” on men, but are less likely to enjoy it. Wagner Cesar Munhoz, CC BY-SA 2.0

We are told it’s better to give than to receive, but when it comes to oral sex, that’s not always the case. A recent studypublished in The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality found women are more than twice as likely to go down on their partners than men, but they are less likely to enjoy performing the act.

Oral sex has become more commonplace in sexual encounters among people of all ages. Prior to the Sexual Revolution of the 1960s, it was just considered taboo, an act reserved for homosexuals or prostitution. Now, “going downtown” has become just as important as intercourse, with some women finding being on the receiving end to be more intimate, and a better way to reach orgasm more quickly.

So, when it comes to giving and receiving oral sex, does one gender find it more pleasurable than the other?

Jessica Wood, lead author of the study at the University of Guelph, and her colleagues, teamed up with two professional marketing/research companies to recruit a national sample of 1,500 Canadian undergraduate students between the ages 18 to 24, and survey them online about their sexual activities in their most recent sexual encounter.

Of the 900 students who were heterosexual, and who had at least one sexual experience in the past, about 70 percent of both sexes reported having oral sex. Oral sex was no more or less likely to happen in hookups versus committed relationships. However, more than twice as many women (26 percent) as men (10 percent) had given but not received oral sex.

These participants were asked to rate how pleasurable oral sex was on a scale from 1 (not at all pleasurable) to 4 (very pleasurable). Going down was found to be less pleasurable with casual partners than with dating or cohabitating partners. This pattern was true among both sexes, with men and women enjoying giving and receiving oral in committed scenarios more so than in casual ones.

However, oral sex with casual partners was still deemed pleasurable. The amount of pleasure experienced was always rated above the mid-point of the scale on average, and receiving oral in particular was closer to the far end of the pleasure scale for both men and women. Here, the two types of oral sex were not created equal. Unsurprisingly, both sexes enjoyed receiving oral more than giving oral, regardless of whether they were just hooking up or in a serious relationship.

The biggest gender difference in oral sex was the enjoyment of giving oral. More than half of men who had given cunnilingus reported enjoying it a lot, while an additional 41 percent enjoyed it somewhat, and 7 percent didn’t enjoy it much or at all. Contrastingly, only 28 percent of the women who gave fellatio found it very pleasurable; for 55 it was somewhat pleasurable; and 17 percent didn’t enjoy doing it. This pattern was more significant in casual hookups.

Unfortunately, more women are giving blowjobs, but the majority aren’t enjoying themselves. This could be attributed to women either subtly or not subtly being pressured to perform sexual acts they do not enjoy. An Australian survey found half of women ages 16 to 25 had felt pressured at some point to engage in oral sex by either partners, peers, the influence of traditional gender roles, or as the result of inadequate sex education.

Meanwhile, men are performing less oral, yet they are twice more likely than women to enjoy it. Now, if more men enjoy it, then why aren’t they doing it more? Previous research has found a man’s health could benefit from going down on his partner. Women produce hormones like oxytocin and DHEA, which can be transferred from their vaginas to their partners’ mouths, have protective effects against diseases such as cancer and heart disease.

Men, help bridge that gender gap, and have more orals with your partner — for your health’s sake.

Source: Wood JR, McKay A, Komarnicky T et al. Was it good for you too?: An analysis of gender differences in oral sex practices and pleasure ratings among heterosexual Canadian university students. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality . 2016.

Originhttp://www.medicaldaily.com/oral-sex-heads-head-games-give-head-go-down-different-strokes-sexual-pleasure-375448

Psychology · Sociology

Perfectionism Can Kill Women’s Self Esteem And Sex Life: Why Sexual Arousal Isn’t As Chemical As You Think

perfection
Perfectionism can seriously mess with sexual function. Pixabay Public Domain

Feel like your partner is just too demanding, and that you’ll never live up to expectations? This could mean bad news for when you’re in the bedroom, according to a new study from the University of Kent.

Psychologists at the university conducted the first in-depth look at how several types of sexual perfectionism affect women’s arousal and functioning over time. Perfectionism, which includes the incessant striving for flawlessness and exceedingly high standards, is a common personality trait. Though perfectionism is often associated with more visible domains of life — school, work, chores — it can rear its head in private situations as well. The long term consequences of perfectionism on sex life had not previously been explored, so Professor Joachim Stoeber at the university’s School of Psychology set out to change that.

He and coauthor Laura N. Harvey looked at the responses of 366 women who had completed surveys between December 2013 and February 2014. The women were either students at the university or Internet users, with average ages of 19.2 and 30 years, respectively. The women were not told the exact goal of the study, but just that the survey was investigating how “personal and interpersonal expectations and beliefs affect one’s sexuality and sexual function.”

The researchers examined four different forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, where a person applies perfectionist standards to themselves as sexual partners (feeling as though they should act and look a certain way to be the “best” partner possible); partner-oriented, where they apply these standards to their sexual partners; partner-prescribed perfectionism, which is when a person believes their sexual partner is imposing perfectionist standards on them; and lastly, socially prescribed sexual perfectionism, or the belief that society is imposing perfectionist sexual standards on them.

Previous studies have identified partner-prescribed and socially prescribed perfectionism as poorly adjusted sexuality, associated with problematic sexual behaviors, like feeling forced to act a certain way for a partner’s benefit, and sexual insecurity. However, these studies only involved cross-sectional relationships, meaning the study only looked at a single point in time. The current study was longitudinal — making comparisons over time — and not only affirmed that partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism contributed to women worrying they weren’t good enough sexually, but also female sexual dysfunction. Specifically, this type of perfectionism was associated with decreases in female arousal.

The negative effects of partner-prescribed perfectionism didn’t end there. These standards also predicted decreases in sexual self-esteem and increases in sexual anxiety, suggesting a deeply psychological effect. The findings could be useful to counselors, therapists, and clinicians who work with women on their sexual health and function.

This research adds to the evidence that female sexual dysfunction may not always, or ever, be about a hormonal or chemical imbalance. Good communication between partners has been consistently cited as the key ingredient to successful arousal and pleasure among women, augmented by the fact that dirty talk is one of the best ways to improve a couple’s sex life. Though hormones certainly play a role in sexual function, a much bigger part may be environmental and social: some psychologists even go so far to claim sex drive doesn’t exist.

Source: Stoeber J, Harvey L. Multidemensional Sexual Perfectionism and Female Sexual Function: A Longitudinal Investigation. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2016.

Originhttp://www.medicaldaily.com/perfectionism-female-sexual-dysfunction-low-self-esteem-380131

Perspective · Sociology

THE GARDENER OF DESIRE

Wendy Maltz, a nationally recognized sex therapist from Eugene, Oregon began studying women’s sexual fantasies eight years ago when she noticed an increasing number of clients asking questions about their fantasies. Scholarly sex journals didn’t offer satisfying answers, so Maltz embarked on her own quest to understand where fantasies come from, what they mean and what we can learn by analyzing sexual fantasies as if they were dreams. Eventually, she and Suzie Boss, a Portland journalist, interviewed more than 100 women, aged 19 to 66, about their hottest thoughts. Maltz and Boss wrote about the results in In the Garden of Desire: The Intimate World of Women’s Sexual Fantasies. Maltz now lectures nationally on the psychology of sexual fantasy and is considered a leading expert on healing and changing unwanted sexual fantasies. Her latest book is Private Thoughts : Exploring the Power of Women’s Sexual Fantasies

You believe that sexual fantasies are generally good for us. Why?

Maltz: Sexual fantasies are a normal, natural psychological phenomenon, reported by about 95 percent of men and women. Generally speaking, fantasies function to decrease anxiety about sex and increase sexual interest and arousal. Thanks to our erotic imagination, we all have this wonderful, built-in helper that can enhance our sexual experiences.

If fantasies are so beneficial and useful, why do they sometimes cause problems?

I often compare fantasies to dreams. We all know that dreams can contain useful psychological information. We also know that some dreams–the ones we call nightmares–are unpleasant to experience. Similarly, sexual fantasies sometimes feel great and playful, and other times can leave us feeling confused, afraid or ashamed. Problems arise if we don’t have enough information to understand what our fantasies are telling us, or if we judge ourselves harshly for the thoughts that turn us on, or if we mistakenly assume that our fantasies reflect our true desires. Often, what we find at the heart of a troublesome fantasy is an unresolved emotional issue that has little or nothing to do with sex.

How do women’s sexual fantasies differ from men’s?

Actually, men’s and women’s fantasies are more alike than different. Both sexes fantasize most often, for instance, about being intimate with their current partner. Men’s fantasies tend to be more visual and get to the sex acts more quickly. Women’s involve more foreplay and more tactile stimulation. No big surprise there, right? More importantly, women’s fantasies tend to focus in on the relationship dynamics between characters, while men’s are more often about impersonal sexual escapades. Both men and women can get physically turned on by the hot graphics you find in porn films, for instance, but women tend not to report feeling aroused by explicit images unless their emotions are also engaged.

What was your biggest surprise in researching sexual fantasy?

The richness and range of women’s sexual fantasies amazed me, even after 20 years as a sex therapist. Women’s private thoughts are much more creative and original than I could have guessed. Also, I discovered that we can learn so much from our own fantasies. By consciously looking at our fantasy life, we can see how our erotic imagination has been shaped by personal life experiences and also by the larger culture. Then, we can use the power of our own minds to change fantasies we don’t like and create new ones that turn us on in ways we truly enjoy.

Originhttps://www.healthyplace.com/sex/psychology-of-sex/the-gardener-of-desire/

Guide · Perspective · Sociology

8 Reasons to Rethink Teens & Sexting

smiling young girl takes a selfie

There is nothing necessarily new about sexting. Remember when you could just snap a Polaroid and hand it over? The chances of lots of people seeing the photo were low. Now, within seconds, thousands of people can see your sext (i.e. nude photo) depending on which app or website it gets uploaded to. Stats on the prevalence of sexting among teens range between 9%-60% (1, 2), so who really knows? But in order for us to address sexting in a realistic way with teens, we must first understand the sexual culture they live in that normalizes sexting.

1. Teens think everyone is sexting and it’s no big deal. Bottom line, if sexting is the norm in a teen’s social circle, they will likely sext (3). And teens who both send and receive sexts tend to be more popular than teens who don’t (4). Many of the girls I talk with think if you send a nude photo without your face in it, then there will be no negative outcome. Because sexting occurs so often without consequences like jail or complete social ostracization, when teens hear adults say that these consequences will occur, it makes adults lose credibility.

2. Boys and girls engage in sexting for different reasons. Girls feel pressure to send sexts and are more likely to do so than boys (5). Boys feel more pressure to collect sexts and are more likely to receive sexts and share them with friends or post them online than girls. This poses an issue because it sets up a type of marketplace, where the boys are the consumers and the girls are the products to be consumed. And yes, sometimes boys are senders, but hetero girls are often not into dick pics.

3. The sexual double standard is alive and well in sexting. We think nothing of a boy requesting a nude image or video, but when a girl participates, we think something is wrong with her. Instead of acknowledging that she too, is sexual. Today, girls are expected to refrain from sexual activity, but be extremely sexually attractive and go to extreme lengths to prove it (6). It is not enough to be pure, elegant and ladylike, you also need to be hot and sexually available to men without actually doing the deed. Yeah, not easily achieved.

4. Sexting can be a sign of self-objectification. In the context of a digital world where boys can objectify girls by watching pornography on their mobile phones in class, what is a girl to do? Well, some unconsciously decide “If I can’t beat ‘em, I can join ‘em.” Then they begin the process of self-objectification. Self-objectification is the act of treating yourself as an object instead of a subject. Meaning, you break down yourself into physical pieces to scrutinize instead of not worrying about your thighs because they are just as much ‘you’ as your sense of humor is. Now, there is nothing wrong with enjoying the feeling of ‘wantedness’ or sexual attractiveness, but the need for it can cross a line. Research shows that self-objectification is linked to decreased sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, sexual safety, and increased disordered eating, depression and anxiety (7, 8, 9, 10).

5. We have a victim blaming culture, even when it comes to sexting. When I do educational seminars about sex and technology with parents and teachers, I overwhelmingly hear stories of “sexting scandals”. Usually followed by a, “Why would she send a nude photo of herself in the first place? Something must be wrong with her.” The reason girls sext and post sexy pictures of themselves online is because they do not have as much power to claim sexual entitlement in our culture as men do. They first have to gain approval from men that they are worthy of sex through men acknowledging that they are f**ckable and legitimately hot. So, what do we do? We blame them for playing the game that we do very little to change.

6. We need to redefine female sexual liberation. We have a culture that packages self-objectification as liberation (8, 10). 3rd-wave feminists are typically into self-objectification as “liberating”. However, I always tell college students in my seminars, if it is not making more orgasms happen, or sex more pleasurable or naturally occurring in some way, it’s probably not liberating. Therefore, it is important to ask teens, what does sexting do for your sex life? This new ‘liberating’ self-objectification is only the other end of the same spectrum of Victorian-Era chastity, perpetuating an unrealistic standard which women can never truly attain and can only come close to if they have specific physical characteristics. Bottom line, the act of girls and women sending naked pictures of themselves is still centering female sexual expression around men’s pleasure and approval. It’s difficult for girls to determine if they are actually expressing their sexuality by “being sexual” instead of just putting on a show for boys by “acting sexual” (11).

7. We need to support girls to foster their own talents and abilities in multiple areas of life, and encourage boys to support them too. You don’t want your teen to sext? Try telling them not to do it. That didn’t work you say? Shocking. It’s important for parents of boys to acknowledge the pressure girls feel to prove they are sexy and to encourage them to recognize girls’ interests, talents and knowledge above their looks whenever possible. For parents of girls, it’s important to focus on their abilities and not just their looks or dress from a young age. It’s not that it is bad for teen girls to express sexuality, it’s just that we don’t want their only dose of daily self-esteem boost to come from a sexy selfie because her sexual worth is her only worth.

8. We need to hold boys and men accountable for their actions, they are capable of not acting on sexual impulses. Parents and schools should be telling boys that asking girls for nude photos is sexual harassment, and that sexual harassment should have consequences under Title IX. Posting and forwarding nude photos or videos is known as revenge porn, and is becoming illegal in many states. This is where our focus should be. Think of how maniacal and vile it is to hurt someone so badly by utterly humiliating them and potentially running future possibilities by posting nude photos online. Compare this with the act of complying with a partner’s request to send a nude photo. Whose motivation is unhealthy? The person who sent the photo hoping for a sexual relationship or sexual intimacy? Or the person who posted or forwarded the photo for all to see?

References

(1)Mitchell, K. J., Jones, L., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2014b). Youth involvement in sexting: Findings from the youth internet safety studies. Crimes Against Children Research Center, 1-11.

(2)Crimmins, D. M., & Seigfried-Spellar, K. C. (2014). Peer attachment, sexual experiences, and risky online behaviors as predictors of sexting behaviors among undergraduate students. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 268-275.

(3)Walrave, M., Ponnet, K., Van Ouytsel, J., Van Gool, E., Heirman, W., & Verbeek, A. (2015). Whether or not to engage in sexting: Explaining adolescent sexting behaviour by applying the prototype willingness model. Telematics and Informatics, (April). doi:10.1016/j.tele.2015.03.008

(4)Vanden Abeele, M., Campbell, S. W., Eggermont, S., & Roe, K. (2014). Sexting, Mobile Porn Use, and Peer Group Dynamics: Boys’ and Girls’ Self-Perceived Popularity, Need for Popularity, and Perceived Peer Pressure. Media Psychology, 17(1), 6-33. doi:10.1080/15213269.2013.801725.

(5)Ringrose, J., Harvey, L., Gill, R., & Livingstone, S. (2013). Teen girls, sexual double standards and ‘sexting’: Gendered value in digital image exchange. Feminist Theory, 14, 305-323.

(6)Milhausen, R. R., & Herold, E. S. (1999). Does the sexual double standard still exist? Perceptions of university women. Journal of Sex Research, 36, 361-368.

(7)Calogero, R. M., & Thompson, J. K. (2009). Sexual self-esteem in American and British college women: Relations with self-objectification and eating problems. Sex Roles, 60, 160-173.

(8)Grabe, S., & Hyde, J. S. (2009). Body objectification, MTV, and psychological outcomes among female Adolescents1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 2840-2858.

(9)Schick, V. R., Calabrese, S. K., Rima, B. N., & Zucker, A. N. (2010). Genital appearance dissatisfaction: Implications for women’s genital image self-consciousness, sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and sexual risk. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 394-404.

(10) Muehlenkamp, J. J., & Saris-Baglama, R. N. (2002). Self-objectification and its psychological outcomes for college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26(4), 371-379.

(11) Tolman, D. L. (2005). Dilemmas of desire: Teenage girls talk about sexuality. Harvard: University Press.

Origin : http://www.huffingtonpost.com/megan-maas/8-reasons-to-rethink-teen_b_12051534.html

Biology & Chemistry · History · Psychology · Sociology

Cause of Pedophile On Neurology’s View

 

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By : Dick Swabb

The shocking scale of child abuse within the Catholic Church has come to light in recent years. The first cases emerged in the United States, then in the Ireland, where, within the bishopric of Dublin alone, hundreds of children were abused between 1976 and 20014. Cases in Germany were subsequently exposed, after which hundred of victims came foward in the Netherlands. These revelations show that, as a result of the taboo surrounding pedophilia, we have no idea how frequently such abuse actually occurs–not just in the church but in general.

Pedophilia can have different causes. If an adult suddenly experiences pedophilic urges, they may have a brain tumor in the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex or hypothalamus. Sometimes it is a symptom of dementia. A sudden switch in sexual inclination to pedophilia has also been caused by operations to cure epilepsy by removing part of the anterior temporal lobe. Such patients can go on to develop Kluver-Bucy syndrome, which involves the loss of sexual inhibition. In the United States, a man who started to download child pornography after an operation of this kind was recently sentenced to ninteen months of imprisonment! Pedophilia can also be caused by infection of the brain, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis and brain trauma.

But a neurological cause for pedophilia is rare. Most pedophiles have always been attracted to children, and the cause can be traced to fetal brain development and early development after birth. Just as gender identity and sexual orientation are determined by genetic background and the interaction between a fetus’s sex hormones and its developing brain, so too pedophilia can apparently be explained by genetic and other factors causing the brain to develop abnormally at an early stage, leading to structural differences. I was once shown a family tree that included three generations of pedophile men. Deviant sexual behavior (like pedophilia) is displayed by a high percentage (18 percent) of first-degree relatives of pedophiles, pointing to genetic factor. In addition, pedophiles are more likely to have been sexually abused by adults as young children. At the end of 2009, the leader of the Northern Irish party Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams, went public with the painful family secret that his father had abused his own children, while his brother was in turn suspected of having sexually abused his daughter. Whether abuse as a children causal factor in the development of pedophilia in adulthood or whether there’s a genetic factor in such families, still needs to be investigated.

Daniel Gajdusek (1923-2008), a man of remarkable talent who studied physics, biology, mathematics and medicine in the United States, thought that abuse as a child could cause pedophilia. He had himself been abused by an uncle as a child. I once had the dubious honor of chairing a lecture by the hypomanic Gajdusek; my colleagues were amused by my vain attempts to keep him in check. Gajdusek had been researching the cause of mass deaths of young women and children from the disease kuru in the villages in the interior of New Guinea in 1957. At the time, it was still a Dutch colony, and he was able to find his way there by using Dutch ordnance survey maps that he’d stolen from the Leiden endocrinology department headed by Dries Querido. Gajdusek discovered that the deaths were indirectly caused by cannibalism. Long after they had eaten the brain of conquered enemies, the victims were struck down by a slow-acting virus, one of whose symptoms was dementia. The disease turned out to be caused by prions (infectious agents mad of protein) just like mad cow disease. In 1996 Gajdusek was awarded the Novel Prize for Medicine. However, when he returned from New Guinea and other remote locations it wasn’t just with brain tissue for further research; he also brought back fifty-six children, mostly little boys. We always thought that this was very odd. He took them into his home and gave them an education, but as an accusation made by a man who had lived with him as a child later revealed, also molested them. He was imprisoned for a year and died in 2009.

There are all kinds of factors in early development that could influence the risk of developing pedophilia. It would seem logical to study them, but the taboo on this condition stands in the way. Who in our society would dare openly admit to being pedophile and take part in research into the causes of this disorder?

In recent years, the first structural differences have been reported between the brains of pedophiles and those of remote control groups. A study involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the former have less gray matter (neurons) in the various area of the brain, like the hypothalamus, the bend nucleus of the stria terminalis (whose size also differs in the transsexuals), and the amygdala, which play a role in sex, fear and aggressive behavior. It moreover emerged that the smaller the amygdala, the more like an individual was to commit pedophilic crimes. Exposure to emotional and erotic images of adult sparks less activity in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pedophile men than in control men, which ties in with the fact that pedophiles are less sexually interested in adults. Convicted pedophiles display greater amygdala activity than control men in response to image of children. Functional scans of the brain of homosexual, heterosexual and pedophile men shown pictures of men, women, girls and boys moreover show a clear difference between these group in terms of brain activity. However, we must bear in mind that research into pedophilia focuses solely on a small, selected group of pedophiles. The majority are able to control their urges, don’t commit crimes, and therefore aren’t studied.

Sexual abuse damages children and is punished, not only for reasons of atonement but also to prevent further abuse. The latter objective poses a problem, though because how do you change behavior that has been programmed in the brain at an early stage of development? In the past, every conceivable effort has been made to change homosexual men into heterosexuals, without any success whatsoever. The same applies to pedophiles. Not so long ago, a court in Utrecht heard the case of sixty-year-old heterosexual church minister charged with pedosexuality. The prosecution called for a sentence of ten months in prison, but after a great deal deliberation he was eventually given a community sentence. How things have changed.

There was a time when an obscure mix of arguments bearing on eugenics, punishment, the protection of society, and the repression of homosexuality led to the castration of pedosexuals in Netherlands. Between 1938 to 1968, at least four hundred sex offenders were “voluntarily” castrated. This practice wasn’t laid down by law. These were offenders detained under a hospital order who were given the choice of his life imprisonment or castration. They had to submit a standard letter to minister of justice, the text of which ran, “May i humbly crave Your Excellency’s permission to be castrated?”. Up to 1950, 80 percent of the castrated men were pedosexual, a situation complicated by the high legal age of sexual consent (sixteen). In Germany, the hypothalami of pedophiles were surgically lesioned in the hope that this would change their sexual orientation. These brain operations were never scientifically documented.

The incidence of chemical castrations among offenders detained under a hospital order is currently increasing. This involves suppressing the libido with a substance that diminishes the effect of testosterone. It can provide relief at being freed from sexual obsession. However, it’s worrying that some of the individuals are being chemically castrated because the authorities would otherwise deny that applications for leave. These substance certainly aren’t suitable for every sex offender, and the side effects, including the development of breasts, obesity and osteoporosis are serious.

The pedosexual minister from Utrecht can thank his lucky stars that things have changed since the days of formal castration requests. The judge who presided over his case was worried about reoffending, and rightly so. Nevertheless, he thought that the six-week pretiral detention would have a deterrent effect and that the combination of a long conditional sentence and a community order would be more effective than lenghty imprisonment. Whether he was right we’ll never know, because the judicial system has no tradition of researching the effectiveness of its punishments. And the medical world, alas, has no tradition of researching the factors in early development that cause pedophilia. Doing away with the taboo on such research could shed light on these factors and on the best methods of checking pedophile impulses and stopping people from reoffending. This would prevent a great deal of misery for all concerned.

The same applies to female pedophiles. The idea that women can’t be guilty of pedosexuality has been found to be a myth. Sexual abuse of children by women is usually perpetrated by mothers on their own offspring. For the most part, the victims are girls with and average age of around six. The mothers tend to be poor and uneducated and often have mental health problem like cognitive impairment, psychoses, or addictions.

An initiative in Canada has shown that it’s possible to tackle this issue by quite simple means. There, pedosexuals are helped by group of volunteers after their detention. The resulting social network has been shown to cut reoffending rates quite considerably. This is much better than the situation in the Netherlands, where in late 2009, a pedophile was first banned from the city of Eindhoven by its mayor, then prohibited from entering a national park in the province of Utrecht. The man now lives in his car and travels from parking lot to parking lot. That’s asking for trouble. But the Netherlands is trying out the Canadian initiative. Another way of preventing child abuse might to be issue smart form of fake child pornography that don’t involve the abuse of real children. Milton Diamond, a renowned sexologist in Hawaii, has found considerable evidence to suggest that his works. However, it will no doubt prove difficult to convince the authorities to consider such an innovative idea.

Origin : We Are Our Brains, Dick Swaab, m/s 72-77, terbitan Penguin Group, 2014.

Biology & Chemistry · History · Psychology · Sociology

Punca Pedofilia Dari Sudut Neurologi

pedophilia_nightowls_lk

Oleh : Dick Swaab

Perkara yang mengejutkan tentang penganiayaan kanak-kanak dalam Gereja Katolik telah menjadi jelas baru-baru ini. Kes pertama timbul di Amerika Syarikat, kemudian di Ireland. Dalam pentadbiran uskup Dublin sahaja, beratus-ratus kanak-kanak dianiaya sekitar 1976 hingga 2004. Kes di Jerman kemudiannya terbongkar selepas beratus-ratus mangsa tampil di Netherland. Pendedahan ini menunjukkan wujudnya tabu yang berkaitan dengan pedofilia. Kita tidak tahu kekerapan penganiayaan telah berlaku yang bukan sahaja di gereja, tetapi pada selainnya.

Pedofilia terjadi disebabkan beberapa punca. Jika seseorang dewasa tiba-tiba mengalami desakan pedofilia, mereka mungkin mengalami tumor otak di korteks prefrontal, korteks temporal atau hipotalamus. Kadangkala disebabkan gejala demensia. Perubahan mengejut pada kecenderungan seksual kepada pedofilia juga disebabkan pembedahan dalam pemulihan epilepsi dengan membuang sebahagian luba temporal anteriror. Pesakit itu mampu terkena sindrom Kluver-Bucy yang menyebabkan kesekatlakuan seks. Di Amerika Syarikat, orang yang mula-mula memuat turun pornografi kanak-kanak dihukum penjara sembilan bulan baru-baru ini selepas pembedahan ini! Pedofilia juga disebabkan jangkitan di otak, Parinson, sklerosis dan trauma otak.

Namun, sebab secara neurologi bagi pedofilia masih pelik. Kebanyakan pedofilia selalu tertarik pada kanak-kanak yang puncanya dapat dikesan pada perkembangan otak janin dan perkembangan awal semasa kelahiran. Sepertimana identiti jantia dan orientasi seksual ditentukan dengan latar belakang genetik dan interaksi antara hormon jantina jantina dan perkembangan otaknya, begitu juga pedofilia yang nampaknya mampu dijelaskan dengan genetik dan faktor lain yang menyebabkan otak berkembang secara abnormal pada peringkat awal yang membawa kepada perbezaan struktur.

Saya pernah ditunjukkan silsilah keluarga yang termasuklah tiga generasi lelaki pedofilia. Perlakuan seksual yang menyimpang (seperti pedofilia) dipaparkan dengan peratus yang tinggi (18 peratus) pada tingkatan kerabat pedofilia yang pertama sebagai penetapan faktor genetik. Tambahan pula, pedofilia berkemungkinan besar berpunca dianiaya secara seksual oleh orang dewasa ketika usia muda. Pada penghujung 2009, rahsia derita keluarga pemimpin parti Northen Irish, iaitu Sinn Fein dan Gerry Adam telah terbongkar bahawa ayahnya telah menganiaya anaknya sendiri, manaakala giliran abangnya pula disyaki mempunyai penganiayaan seks terhadap anak perempuannya. Sama ada kanak-kanak yang dianiaya merupakan faktor penyebab pada perkembangan pedofulia semasa dewasa atau sama ada di sana terdapat faktor genetik seperti keluarga masih memerlukan penelitian.

Daniel Gjdusek (1923-2008), tokoh berbakat luar biasa yang mengkaji fizik, biologi, matematik dan perubatan di Amerika Syarikat menganggap bahawa kanak-kanak yang dianiaya kemungkinan penyebab pedofilia. Dia sendiri dianiaya oleh pakciknya ketika kanak-kanak. Dahulu saya pernah begitu ragu-ragu mempengerusikan syarahan oleh Gajdusek yang hipomania. Rakan kolej saya geli hati terhadap keinginan saya untuk menyekatnya.

Gajdusek telah mengkaji sebab kematian besar-besaran wanita muda dan kanak-kanak disebabkan penyakit kuru di kampung di pedalaman New Guinea pada 1957. Pada waktu itu, kampung itu dalam jajahan Belanda dan dia dapat menemukan jalannya ke sana dengan menggunakan kelengkapan tinjauan peta Belanda yang dia curi dari jabatan endorik Lein yang dipengerusi oleh Dries Querido.

Gadjusek menemukan bahawa kematian itu berpunca daripada kanibalisme yang tidak langsung. Selepas lama otak mereka dimakan yang ditawan musuh, mangsa ditimpa virus yang bergerak perlahan. Salah satu daripadanya ialah demensia. Penyakit itu ternyata disebabkan prion (agen yang berjangkit diperbuat daripada protein) yang sama penyakit lembu gila. Pada 1996, Gajdusek diangerahkan Hadian Nobel dalam perubatan.

Walau bagaimana pun, apabila dia pulang dari New Guinea dan lokasi terpencil yang lain, dia bukan sahaja mengkaji lebih mendalam pada tisu otak, dia juga membawa balik 56 kanak-kanak yang kebanyakan budak lelaki. Dia membawa mereka ke rumahnya dan memberikan mereka pendidikan. Namun, dia juga mencabul mereka sepertimana pendedahan tuduhan yang dibuat oleh seseorang yang tinggal bersama dengannya sebagai kanak-kanak. Dia dipenjara selama setahun dan meninggal pada 2008.

Terdapat juga segala faktor pada perkembangan awal yang mampu mempengaruhi risiko mengembangkan pedofilia. Sangat logik untuk mengkajinya, tetapi tabu pada keadaan ini menghalanginya. Siapa dalam masyarakat kita sanggup mengaku secara terbuka untuk menjadi pedofilia dan menyertai kajian bagi punca kerancuan ini?

Pada tahun baru-baru ini, perbezaan struktur yang pertama telah dikaji antara otak pedofilia dan mereka yang pada kelompok kawalan. Kajian yang melibatkan pengimejan resonan magnet menunjukkan orang itu ada sedikit gray matter (neuron) pada pelbagai kawasan otak seperti hipotalamus, dasar nukleus terminalis stria (yang saiznya juga berbeza dengan transeksual) dan amigdala yang memainkan peranan untuk perlakuan seks, ketakutan dan agresif. Tambahan pula kajian menunjukkan semakin kecil amigdala, semakin tinggi kemungkinan seseorang itu melakukan jenayah pedofilia. Pendedahan kepada gambar orang dewasa erotik dan beremosi menyebabkan sedikit aktiviti di hipotalamus dan koreks prefrontal pada orang pedofilia berbanding orang biasa. Ini menunjukkan bahawa orang pedofilia mempunyai minat seksual yang kurang pada orang dewasa.

Golongan pedofilia mempamerkan lebih banyak aktiviti amigdala berbanding kelompok kawalan dalam memberi respons imej kanak-kanak. Tambahan pula, imbasan fungsian pada otak orang homoseksual, heteroseksual dan pedofilia yang ditunjukkan gambar lelaki dewasa, wanita dewasa, budak wanita dan budak lelaki menunjukkan perbezaan yang nyata di antara kelompok dikelaskan mengikut aktiviti otak. Walau bagaimanapun, kita perlu ingat bahawa kajian pedofulia hanya fokus pada yang kecil dan kelompok pedofilia yang dipilih.Majoriti mampu untuk mengawal desakan mereka, tetapi tidak melakukan jenayah. Hal itu menyebabkan mereka tidak dikaji.

Kerosakan penganiayaan seksual kanak-kanak yang dihukum bukan sahaja kerana reaksi penebus, tetapi juga sebagai pencegahan penganiayaan yang selanjutnya. Bangkangan yang akhir-akhir ini mengutarakan sebuah masalah, iaitu bagaimana anda mengubah kelakuan yang telah diprogramkan di otak pada peringkat awal perkembangan? Pada masa yang lalu, setiap percubaan telah pun dilakukan bagi mengubah orang homoseksual kepada heteroseksual, namun tidak berhasil apa-apa. Perkara yang sama terjadi pada pedofilia. Tidak lama dahulu, mahkamah di Utrecht mendengar kes menteri gereja heteroseksual yang berusia 60 tahun yang dihukum kerana seks pedofilia. Orang itu dijatuhkan hukuman sepuluh bulan di penjara, tetapi selepas melalui perimbangan yang banyak, dia berkemungkinan dihukumi untuk khidmat masyarakat. Betapa hebat perubahan yang berlaku.

Ada suatu ketika berlakunya ketegangan yang bercampur aduk kesamarannya bagi berhadapan dengan eugenik, hukuman, perlindungan masyarakat dan tekanan terhadap homoseksual sehingga membawa kepada pengembirian pedoseksual di Netherland. Sekitar 1938 dan 1968, sekurang-kurangnya empat ratus pesalah laku seks “merelakan diri” untuk dikembiri. Praktik ini tidak ditetapkan oleh undang-undang. Pesalah laku seks ini ditahan bawah perintah hospital yang diberi pilihan sama ada penjara seumur atau pengembirian. Mereka telah menghantar surat rasmi kepada kementerian kehakiman yang dalam teks itu menyebut, “Bolehkah saya meminta dengan rendah diri kepada Tuan Yang Terutama bagi membenarkan diri tuan dikembiri?”. Selepas 1950, 80 peratus orang yang dikembiri ialah pedofilia. Dalam masa yang sama berlaku situasi rumit dalam penentuan cukup umur untuk seksual di sisi undang-undang. Di Jerman, hipotalamus pedofilia dilukakan secara pembedahan dengan harapan agar ini mampu mengubah orientasi seksual mereka. Kaedah ini tidak pernah didokumenkan secara saintifik.

Insiden pengembirian secara kimia terhadap pesalah laku yang ditahan bawah arahan hospital sedang bertambah sekarang ini. Ini melibatkan penyekatan libido dengan bahan-bahan kimia yang mengurangkan kesan testosteron. Ini mampu melegakan ketagihan seksual ketika dibebaskan. Walau bagaimanapun, perkara ini membimbangkan sebahagian individu ini dikembiri secara kimia. Pihak berkuasa cuma akan berlepas diri atas kesan perbuatan mereka. Bahan-bahan kimia ini tidak sesuai untuk setiap pesalah laku seks dan kesan sampingan baginya termasuklah perkembangan buah dada, obesiti dan osteoporosis yang merupakan sesuatu yang bahaya.

Menteri pedofilia dari Utrecht boleh memanjatkan kesyukuran kepada nasib tuahnya kerana perkara itu berubah sejak hari permintaan pengembirian yang formal. Hakim yang mempengerusi siasatan kesnya begitu bimbang terhadap perlakuan semula dan itulah yang sebetulnya. Namun, dia fikir bahawa enam bulan tahanan prapembicaraan mampu memberi kesan hukuman dan gabungan antara hukuman bersyarat yang lama dan komuniti order lebih efektif berbanding pemenjaraan yang lama. Sama ada dia benar, kita masih tidak tahu kerana sistem kehakiman tidak ada tradisi untuk mengkaji kefektifan hukumannya. Begitu juga dunia perubatan. Alahai! Itu pun tiada tradisi bagi mengkaji faktor perkembangan awal yang menyebabkan pedofilia. Menyahkan tabu daripada kajian itu mampu memberi pencerahan kepada faktor ini dan merupakan kaedah terbaik bagi memeriksa impuls pedofil serta menghentikan orang lain daripada. Ini mampu menghilangkan kesengsaraan besar yang sangat dibimbangi.

Perkara yang sama teraplikasi pada wanita pedofilia. Tanggapan tentang wanita tidak disabitkan melakukan kesalahan bagi seksual pedofilnya cumalah mitos sahaja. Penganiayaan seksual kanak-kanak oleh wanita selalunya dilakukan oleh ibunya sendiri. Pada kebanyakan bahagian, mangsa ialah wanita dan purata umur kira-kira enam tahun. Ibu itu disebabkan kemiskinan, tidak berpendidikan dan selalu mempunyai masalah kesihatan mental seperti kerosakan kognitif, psiko dan ketagihan.

Inisiatif di Kanada telah menunjukkan bahawa inisiatif itu mampu mengatasi isu ini dengan cara yang begitu mudah. Di sana, pedofilia dibantu oleh kumpulan sukarela selepas penahanannya.  Hasil rangkaian sosial ini telah mencegah perlakuan semula dengan kadar yang berpatutan. Ini lebih baik daripada situasi di Netherland. Pada akhir 2009, seorang pedofilia mula-mula dilarang dari memasui ke bandar Eindhoven oleh datuk bandar, kemudian dihalang dari memasuki taman negara di wilayah Utrecht. Sekarang orang itu tinggal di keretanya dan merantau dari lot letak kereta ke lot letak kereta. Itu sememangnya mencari masalah. Namun, Netherland sedang mencuba inisiatif Kanada.

Cara lain untuk mencegah penganiayaan kanak-kanak mungkin menghasilkan rekaan pintar pornografi kanak-kanak tiruan yang tidak melibatkan penganiayaan kanak-kanak sebenar. Milton Diamond, terkenal dengan ahli seksologi di Hawaii telah mendapati bukti yang banyak untuk mencadangkan bahawa cara ini berkesan. Meskipun begitu, ini tidak diragui lagi betapa sukarnya untuk meyakinkan pihak berkuasa untuk pertimbangkan idea pembaharuan iu itu.

Nukilan dan terjemahan daripada We Are Our Brains, Dick Swaab, m/s 72-77, terbitan Penguin Group, 2014.

Teks asal :

The shocking scale of child abuse within the Catholic Church has come to light in recent years. The first cases emerged in the United States, then in the Ireland, where, within the bishopric of Dublin alone, hundreds of children were abused between 1976 and 20014. Cases in Germany were subsequently exposed, after which hundred of victims came foward in the Netherlands. These revelations show that, as a result of the taboo surrounding pedophilia, we have no idea how frequently such abuse actually occurs–not just in the church but in general.

Pedophilia can have different causes. If an adult suddenly experiences pedophilic urges, they may have a brain tumor in the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex or hypothalamus. Sometimes it is a symptom of dementia. A sudden switch in sexual inclination to pedophilia has also been caused by operations to cure epilepsy by removing part of the anterior temporal lobe. Such patients can go on to develop Kluver-Bucy syndrome, which involves the loss of sexual inhibition. In the United States, a man who started to download child pornography after an operation of this kind was recently sentenced to ninteen months of imprisonment! Pedophilia can also be caused by infection of the brain, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis and brain trauma.

But a neurological cause for pedophilia is rare. Most pedophiles have always been attracted to children, and the cause can be traced to fetal brain development and early development after birth. Just as gender identity and sexual orientation are determined by genetic background and the interaction between a fetus’s sex hormones and its developing brain, so too pedophilia can apparently be explained by genetic and other factors causing the brain to develop abnormally at an early stage, leading to structural differences. I was once shown a family tree that included three generations of pedophile men. Deviant sexual behavior (like pedophilia) is displayed by a high percentage (18 percent) of first-degree relatives of pedophiles, pointing to genetic factor. In addition, pedophiles are more likely to have been sexually abused by adults as young children. At the end of 2009, the leader of the Northern Irish party Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams, went public with the painful family secret that his father had abused his own children, while his brother was in turn suspected of having sexually abused his daughter. Whether abuse as a children causal factor in the development of pedophilia in adulthood or whether there’s a genetic factor in such families, still needs to be investigated.

Daniel Gajdusek (1923-2008), a man of remarkable talent who studied physics, biology, mathematics and medicine in the United States, thought that abuse as a child could cause pedophilia. He had himself been abused by an uncle as a child. I once had the dubious honor of chairing a lecture by the hypomanic Gajdusek; my colleagues were amused by my vain attempts to keep him in check. Gajdusek had been researching the cause of mass deaths of young women and children from the disease kuru in the villages in the interior of New Guinea in 1957. At the time, it was still a Dutch colony, and he was able to find his way there by using Dutch ordnance survey maps that he’d stolen from the Leiden endocrinology department headed by Dries Querido. Gajdusek discovered that the deaths were indirectly caused by cannibalism. Long after they had eaten the brain of conquered enemies, the victims were struck down by a slow-acting virus, one of whose symptoms was dementia. The disease turned out to be caused by prions (infectious agents mad of protein) just like mad cow disease. In 1996 Gajdusek was awarded the Novel Prize for Medicine. However, when he returned from New Guinea and other remote locations it wasn’t just with brain tissue for further research; he also brought back fifty-six children, mostly little boys. We always thought that this was very odd. He took them into his home and gave them an education, but as an accusation made by a man who had lived with him as a child later revealed, also molested them. He was imprisoned for a year and died in 2009.

There are all kinds of factors in early development that could influence the risk of developing pedophilia. It would seem logical to study them, but the taboo on this condition stands in the way. Who in our society would dare openly admit to being pedophile and take part in research into the causes of this disorder?

In recent years, the first structural differences have been reported between the brains of pedophiles and those of remote control groups. A study involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the former have less gray matter (neurons) in the various area of the brain, like the hypothalamus, the bend nucleus of the stria terminalis (whose size also differs in the transsexuals), and the amygdala, which play a role in sex, fear and aggressive behavior. It moreover emerged that the smaller the amygdala, the more like an individual was to commit pedophilic crimes. Exposure to emotional and erotic images of adult sparks less activity in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pedophile men than in control men, which ties in with the fact that pedophiles are less sexually interested in adults. Convicted pedophiles display greater amygdala activity than control men in response to image of children. Functional scans of the brain of homosexual, heterosexual and pedophile men shown pictures of men, women, girls and boys moreover show a clear difference between these group in terms of brain activity. However, we must bear in mind that research into pedophilia focuses solely on a small, selected group of pedophiles. The majority are able to control their urges, don’t commit crimes, and therefore aren’t studied.

Sexual abuse damages children and is punished, not only for reasons of atonement but also to prevent further abuse. The latter objective poses a problem, though because how do you change behavior that has been programmed in the brain at an early stage of development? In the past, every conceivable effort has been made to change homosexual men into heterosexuals, without any success whatsoever. The same applies to pedophiles. Not so long ago, a court in Utrecht heard the case of sixty-year-old heterosexual church minister charged with pedosexuality. The prosecution called for a sentence of ten months in prison, but after a great deal deliberation he was eventually given a community sentence. How things have changed.

There was a time when an obscure mix of arguments bearing on eugenics, punishment, the protection of society, and the repression of homosexuality led to the castration of pedosexuals in Netherlands. Between 1938 to 1968, at least four hundred sex offenders were “voluntarily” castrated. This practice wasn’t laid down by law. These were offenders detained under a hospital order who were given the choice of his life imprisonment or castration. They had to submit a standard letter to minister of justice, the text of which ran, “May i humbly crave Your Excellency’s permission to be castrated?”. Up to 1950, 80 percent of the castrated men were pedosexual, a situation complicated by the high legal age of sexual consent (sixteen). In Germany, the hypothalami of pedophiles were surgically lesioned in the hope that this would change their sexual orientation. These brain operations were never scientifically documented.

The incidence of chemical castrations among offenders detained under a hospital order is currently increasing. This involves suppressing the libido with a substance that diminishes the effect of testosterone. It can provide relief at being freed from sexual obsession. However, it’s worrying that some of the individuals are being chemically castrated because the authorities would otherwise deny that applications for leave. These substance certainly aren’t suitable for every sex offender, and the side effects, including the development of breasts, obesity and osteoporosis are serious.

The pedosexual minister from Utrecht can thank his lucky stars that things have changed since the days of formal castration requests. The judge who presided over his case was worried about reoffending, and rightly so. Nevertheless, he thought that the six-week pretiral detention would have a deterrent effect and that the combination of a long conditional sentence and a community order would be more effective than lenghty imprisonment. Whether he was right we’ll never know, because the judicial system has no tradition of researching the effectiveness of its punishments. And the medical world, alas, has no tradition of researching the factors in early development that cause pedophilia. Doing away with the taboo on such research could shed light on these factors and on the best methods of checking pedophile impulses and stopping people from reoffending. This would prevent a great deal of misery for all concerned.

The same applies to female pedophiles. The idea that women can’t be guilty of pedosexuality has been found to be a myth. Sexual abuse of children by women is usually perpetrated by mothers on their own offspring. For the most part, the victims are girls with and average age of around six. The mothers tend to be poor and uneducated and often have mental health problem like cognitive impairment, psychoses, or addictions.

An initiative in Canada has shown that it’s possible to tackle this issue by quite simple means. There, pedosexuals are helped by group of volunteers after their detention. The resulting social network has been shown to cut reoffending rates quite considerably. This is much better than the situation in the Netherlands, where in late 2009, a pedophile was first banned from the city of Eindhoven by its mayor, then prohibited from entering a national park in the province of Utrecht. The man now lives in his car and travels from parking lot to parking lot. That’s asking for trouble. But the Netherlands is trying out the Canadian initiative. Another way of preventing child abuse might to be issue smart form of fake child pornography that don’t involve the abuse of real children. Milton Diamond, a renowned sexologist in Hawaii, has found considerable evidence to suggest that his works. However, it will no doubt prove difficult to convince the authorities to consider such an innovative idea.

Psychology · Sociology

Mengapa Seks Itu Seronok?

Salah satu persoalan utama dalam kehidupan ialah: Mengapa seks begitu seronok? Menurut kajian semakan semula yang baharu, hal itu kerana seks seumpama tarian, yoga dan keseronokan jenis lain yang melibatkan tubuh badan yang merupakan sebuah irama dan irama itu mempunyai cara untuk menyatukan dan meningkatkan perasaan itu.

Kajian itu ditulis oleh Adam Safron, pengkaji Northwesten University dan diteribtkan di Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology. Kajian itu menyatakan persetubuhan mampu menjadi seumpama pengalaman yang ajaib kerana “hiburan”. Ini ungkapan yang terbaik untuk mengatakan bahawa otak, organ deria dan sistem badan anda kesemuanya mengalir ke haluan seksi yang sama. Sesuatu yang terjadi ketika saat-saat untuk orgasma, dia berhujah, sesuatu yang sama terjadi ketika pengalaman yang paling menggembirakan (bayangkan rentak irama kegemaran anda pada lagu disko baharu). Perspesi irama dan gerak geri yang mendorong anda untuk lebih fokus kepada stimuli yang membuatkan anda lebih terangsang. Itu menjadikan anda lebih seronok dan lebih fokus yang membawa kepada peningkatan lanjut pada iring arus, sekaligus mencipta suap balik positif dalam memperhebat serapan seksual.

Keterangan itu tidak cukup untuk menyatakan hal ini menambahkan keghairahan dan keseronokan. Cara yang lebih baik untuk memahami sebab seseorang hilang kesedarannya seperti biasa semasa melakukan seks dalam keadaan asyik, sama seperti anda merasa kesedaran serapan terutamanya pada tarian yang penuh dengan keseronokan, sesi yoga yang penuh tumpuan, tafakkur yang sangat mendalam atau larian yang sangat memuaskan. “Fokus yang hebat dalam rasa yang segera sebagaimana kesemua itu adalah dihasilkan oleh stimulasi irama yang kemungkinan mengurangkan kuasa keupayaan mental berinteraksi untuk sesuatu yang lain”, tulis Safron. Hal itu seperti swanaratif yang suka merenung, tertanya-tanya tentang perkara yang akan berlaku atau secara umumnya fikiran anda berada di tempat lain berbanding kedudukan yang anda berada masa itu. “Pengalaman deria itu memfokuskan dan mengubah swapemprosesan kemungkinan lebih sesuai dengan merujuk kepada suatu jenis keadaan asyik”, tulisnya. “Jika keasyikan ini berlaku dalam konteks individu lain yang sama-sama terserap, maka itu mampu berpotensi menyumbangkan perasaan perhubungan bersama dengan pengemabangan swabatasan yang lain”.

Dalam emel susulan, Safron mengatakan bahawa penemuan yang paling mengejutkan dalam kajian ini ialah betapa banyak seks menyerupai aktiviti yang hebat seperti tarian dan muzik. “Keasyikan seksual kemungkinan sama dengan tafakkur dan yoga dalam memfokuskan rasa irama pada nafas di badan dan kadangkala pada gerakan badan yang biasa”, katanya. “Aliran vinyasa mempunyai tempo dan nada tertentu padanya. Sudah tentu irama irama merupakan segala-galanya dalam tarian”. Keasyikan itu juga mempunyai aspek evolusi, dia berhujah; Lingkaran suap balik positif pada serapan iring arus merupakan cara semula jadi memberitahu anda untuk meneruskan melakukan seks dengan seseorang memandangkan seseorang yang dapat mendorong untuk anda kepada aspek seks yang hebat. Hal ini berkemungkinan mereka lebih memberi perhatian penuh dalam perhubungan lebih luas dan juga dengan membesarkan anak-anak. Sepertimana pengkaji seks berkata kepada Science of Us, iaitu yang terbaik (dan satu-satunya) cara untuk memperoleh yang lebih baik dalam seks ialah mempelajari sesuatu yang pasangan anda sukai dan tumpu padanya.

Sekarang, iring arus irama ialah model, salah satu cara bagi memahami keberkesanan seks (atau ketidakberkesanan). Model itu memerlukan kajian empirik sebelum dapat disemadikan sebagai kebenaran mutlak. Namun, pada pertimbangan yang waras, hal itu semestinya kelihatan pragmatik. Bagi Safran, model itu mencadangkan bahawa anda akan melakukan terbaik memberi tumpuan lebih dalam merasai irama ketika seks dan kualiti irama yang anda berikan pada pasangan anda memandangkan anda melakukan perkara yang sama dari semasa ke semasa sehingga anda tua.

“Model pengalaman seks itu sebagai keadaan keasyikan mencadangkan seseorang perlu merasai selesa untuk melakukannya supaya seronok melakukan seks”, tulisnya. “Ini konsisten dengan kebanyakan daripada perkara yang ahli terapi seks beritahu kepada klien. Meskpun saya fikir saya mencadangkan sesuatu yang lebih sedikit radikal di sini, saya menyatakan bahawa ahli sainsneuro menyokong hal yang berkaitan dengan pengalaman seksual kita sebagai perubahaan keadaan kesedaran. Saya fikir memandang keseksualan dengan cara ini mampu menolong seseorang mengelak melakukan seks (dan terhadap sesama sendiri) tanpa munasabah dan itu sebenarnya mampu membantu seseorang untuk masuk kepada keadaan keasyikan yang mereka mahu”.

Terjemahan daripada : http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/11/why-sex-is-so-good.html

Sebuah penemuan menunjukkan melakukan seks seminggu sekali membuatkan seseorang lebih gembira berbanding sebulan sekali. Hal itu menyamai dengan menjana pendapatan tambahan $50,000 setiap tahun. Christian Jarret menegaskan di BPS Research Digest. Soalan itu berkaitan tentang sebab seks menghasilkan kesan itu yang bukan sahaja kenikmatan waktu itu juga, tetapi rasa keselesaan yang lebih hebat  Daripada situlah kajian baharu diterbitkan di Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin yang tampaknya kesemuanya berkaitan dengan pelukan. “Seks bukan sahaja bermanfaat pada kerana kesan psikologinya dan hedonik”, tulis penulis kedoktoran Anik Debrot dan rakannya dari University of Toronto, “tetapi sebab menggalakkan perhubungan lebih kuat dan lebih positif dengan pasangan”. (Rujuk : http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2017/02/why-sex-makes-people-happy.html).

Sociology

Mengapa Kita Melakukan Seks?

Kenapa anda tidur di waktu malam? Soalan ini secara zahirnya kelihatan ringkas, tetapi sebenarnya soalan itu antara soalan yang susah yang sehingga sekarang sains tidak menjawabnya. Banyak yang zahirnya kelihatan ringkas, tetapi pada penelitian yang mendalam, tidaklah semuanya mudah dijawab. Salah satu daripadanya mungkin yang paling menarik, iaitu mengapa kita melakukan seks?
Mengapa anda mahukan seks? Jawapan yang lazim tentulah berdasarkan yang telah diketahui, iaitu fungsi pembiakan melalui seks. Kita mahukan seks kerana kewujudan kita yang berterusan sebagai spiseis bergantung padanya. Seseorang dididik bahawa anak-anak lahir melalui seks dan sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan burung botak cumalah cerita sahaja.
Namun, fakta secara kasar ini diragukan dengan anggapan ini. Pertama, manusia meneruskan untuk melakukan seks selepas mereka terhenti memperoleh anak. Selalunya, kehidupan seks mereka sebenarnya lebih baik kerana tidak ada kebimbangan lagi tentang kehamilan yang tidak terancang (atau nanti seorang junior muncul di sebelah ketika beraksi, lalu dia berkata dia mahu ke tandas).
Hal ini membawa kita fakta berikut, iaitu kebanyakan seks yang berlaku sekarang ini di seluruh dunia bukanlah untuk tujuan beranakan. Sebaliknya, kebanyakan mereka yang begitu sibuk pada sat ini akan terkejut dan kecewa apabila mendapati akrobatik gembira mereka menyebabkan kehamilan. Keseronokan segera dalam seks dan erotisisme tidak semestinya berkaitan dengan peningkatan minat dalam menghasilkan keturunan.
Sebenarnya, minat mereka selalunya yang berkaitan dengan sebaliknya.Tambahan pula, banyak perlakuan seks yang selalunya kita lakukan  tidak berkaitan dengan pembiakan sama sekali walaupun pada tahun subur. Jika seks untuk pembiakan, bagaimana mekanisme keseronokan seks disusun berkaitan dengan seks dubur dan oral? Mengapa kita anda berpegangan tangan dengan teman lelaki anda? Anak tidak lahir melaluinya.
Lagipun, anda juga berpegangan tangan dengan anak saudara perempuan berusia tiga tahun. Apa yang terjadi di sini? Dan apakah itu pembiakan tentang seseorang membelai rambut anda? Sebenarnya, mengapa urusan genital, organ keseronokan pembiakan tersebar ke segala jenis organ yang tidak ada kena mengena dengan pembiakan seperti bahu (sangat seksi pada abad ke-19), leher (tarikan seks pada budaya Jepun) atau buah dada (obsesi kontemporari orang Amerika)? Jika seseorang lelaki mempunyai desakan biologi untuk mendapatkan ibu yang baik untuk zuriatnya, mengapa dia selalu membezakan antara wanita seksi dan wanita keibuan serta memilih yang seksi berbanding keibuan?
Sekarang anda berkata, “Ok, marilah kita lupakan tentang biologi. Mengapa rumitkan keadaan? Seks itu seronok dan nikmat? Saya melakukan seks untuk keseronokan”. Namun, alasan itu juga tidak memuaskan. Hal itu ternyata keinginan untuk kenikmatan fizikal bukan sebab yang penting untuk aktiviti seks.
Kajian menunjukkan bahawa kenikmatan fizikal bagi rangsangan genital tidak semestinya komponen penting dalam keputusan melakukan seks. Pengkaji Candy Meston dan David Buss telah bertanya 400 orang pelajar sebab mereka melakukan seks pada beberapa tahun yang lalu. Selepas memproses data dan membuang jawapan yang serupa dan seiras, mereka mendapat senarai 237 sebab yang berbeza untuk seks, termasuklah, “Saya mahu memberikan STD kepadanya, “Saya kasihan dengannya”, “Untuk hukum diri saya” dan “Saya kalah dalam pertaruhan”.
Sebenarnya ialah kebanyakan manusia melakukan seks sekarang ini dengan tanpa kenikmatan atau apa-apa harapan terhadapnya. Jika keseronokan yang anda mahu dan jika berkeinginan untuk orgasma yang bagus, anda dapat memperolehnya dengan lebih cepat dan murah dengan kemungkinan yang lebih dan risiko yang kurang pada kehamilan dan penyakit melalui lancap. Lantas, mengapa anda melakukan seks dengan pasangna anda? Apabila anda melancap, mengapa anda berkhayal tentang lelaki itu (atau seseorang)?
Ternyata bahawa rasa yang dalam pada kenikmatan seks bergantung kepada sesuatu yang ada dan pengendalian yang lain. Ilustrasi yang pahit pada dasar ini dapat ditemui pada pelacuran. Pada zahirnya, pelacuran merupakan perniagaan yang suram yang merupakan contoh unggul bagi pencari kenikmatan yang mementingkan diri sendiri (kebanyakannya lelaki). Pelanggan membeli kelegaan seks fizikal demi wang yang mudah dan ringkas. Namun, pelanggan itu sendiri mampu memberikan orgasma secara percuma. Lantas, mengapa perlu bayar?  Mengapa keseronokan pelanggan bertambah jika pelacuran menghasilkan nada yang menyeronokkan dan keghairahan seks? Jika motivasi klien merupakan pelegaan seks yang mementingkan diri, iaitu kepuasan bagi desakan biologi, mengapa itu penting baginya jika pelacur itu ghairah? Apakah yang mengujanya pada fikiran itu yang wanita itu yang dia sendiri merasa seronok? Dasar sosial dan dinamik antara perorangan jelas wujud walaupun di sini, iaitu dalam transaksi yang terpencil.
 Selebihnya, marilah kita menerimanya bahawa seks bukanlah keseronokan yang automaik. Ingat pengalaman seks anda yang pertama. Itu bukanlah untuk keseronokan. Sebahagian pernafasan mulut, rabaan puting dada dari kelas kimia yang membuatkan anda terasa syahwat dari belakang anda, lidah basah dijilat ke telinga anda kerana rakan anda melihat sesuatu di internet tentang cara yang sepatutnya anda lakukan. Kemudian, dia bertanya jika anda terangsang. Atau ambil contoh urusan penciuman. Apa yang menyeronokkan menukar air liur dan baki makanan malam dengan seseorang yang lain? Sekalipun kita fokus pada genital, kebanyakan organ seks sangat sensitif apabila disentuh sama ada untuk yang lebih baik baik atau lebih teruk. Jika seseorang menyentuh genital anda dengan cemerkap atau ketika anda tidak bersdia atau anda tidak mahu disentuh, sentuhan itu akan menyakitkan, ofensif dan menjijikkan, tidak mengujakan dan menyeronokkan. Seks yang bagus adalah yang dipelajari. Anda perlu berusaha untuknya. Keseronokan tidak datang dengan sendiri dan bukan untuk annda seorang. Keseronokan seks nampaknya dipersiapkan, dijalankan, didefinsikan dan diuruskan melalui faktor luaran.
Randal Collin yang merupakan ahli sosiologi orang Amerika yang hebat yang telah pun menulis subjek ini pada beberapa dekad yang lalu (dan kebanyakan ilham kajiannya di atas mempunyai dasar) berhujah yang begitu menyakinkan bahawa seks manusia mampu difahami sepenuhnya hanya dengan konteks sosial. Manusia pada asasnya merupakan sosial yang berlainan dan menarik. Kita tidak boleh hidup dengan kesunyian dan keterasingan, apatah lagi untuk berkembang maju. Bagi kita, kuasa dan pemaknaan muncul semasa mengadakan perhubungan. Hasrat seks sekaligus bukanlah satu-satunya matlamat untuk keseronokan fizikal atau penghasilan anak, tetapi perhubungan dengan yang lain. Keseronokan seks secara asasnya pembinaan sosial yang merupakan pemilikan yang baru muncul bagi pertukaran sosial.
Menurut Collins, kita membina dunia kita dengan siri kompleks yang sedang berlaku, iaitu “upacara interaksi” yang mendorong kewujudan kita (fizikal) dan memberi makna (mental dan kerohanian). Setiap aspek pada kehidupan kita dikendalikan melalui istiadat ini. Perbualan antara rakan, hari bekerja, permainan bola sepak dan Ahad di gereja yang kesemua ini merupakan upacara interasi. Semua ini mungkin berbeza dari kandungannya, tetapi serupa dasar sosialnya dan proses psikologi. Ini semua melibatkan pengumpulan orang kepada suatu kumpulan yang orang itu menyedari terhadap sesama sendiri, mengarahkan perhatian kita kepada minat yang sama, berkongsi ekspresi emosi yang kuat dan menetapkan batasan antara “kita” dan “mereka”.
Pada konteks ini, seks merupakan upcara interaktif dan hal tersebut mengikut peraturan. Dalam pertembungan seks, kumpulan kecil berkumpul (biasanya dua, tidak lebih). Orang itu menyedari keberadaan yang lain (tidak ada seorang pun yang pernah berkata kepada anda ketika bersetubuh, “Wow! Saya baru perasan anda di sini”) dan perhatian mereka menghala ke minat yang sama (mereka bersanggama). Mereka berkongsi emosi yang hebat. Pada kes ini, keghairahan seksual dan membina definisi yang jelas tentang “kita” dan “mereka” (“kita” adalah di sini yang sedang melakukan seks dan “mereka”, ialah si selekeh di luar. Mereka tidak boleh melihat kita, menganggu kita atau mengetahui segala perkara tentang sesuatu yang kami lakukan).
Hasil pada upacara interaksi ini, sama ada di gereja atau di katil dapat dijangkakan, iaitu perpaduan antara mereka bertambah (di gereja, kita bersatu bawah naungan Tuhaan dan di katil kita setia antara satu sama lain), tenaga mental terbina (aku kuat pada kepercayaanku atau cintaku sangat mendalam). Pada pertembungan itu, terutamanya jika itu diulangi, memori yang terikat itu akan dipilih sebagai simbolik perhubungan dengan pasangan (empat puluh tahun di padang pasir atau empat puluh minit di hotel butik di Ventura), beberapa objek akan menjadi kuat kualiti sucinya (salib atau cincin perkahwinan) dan gerak isyarat akan dipilih untuk menjelaskan batasan perhubungan itu, membatasi perkara yang hanya kita sahaja dan membezakan kita daripada yang lain (kita meminum darah Christ atau hanya kita yang boleh sentuh sesama sendiri di situ).
Menurut Collins, pemahaman teliti pada keseksualan tidak mustahil jika kita melihatnya daripada perspektif konteks sosial itu berbanding kita memeriksanya dari perspektif individu itu. Penari menjadi seperti kebaikan itu bagi kewujudan tarian itu. Daripada kita berkata, “Setiap peluang ada harinya”, kita patut berkata, “Setiap hari ada peluangnya”. Anda dan kekasih anda tidak membawa kenikmatan seks ke perhubungan. Anda mendapat kenikmatan itu daripada perhubungan. Bahagian badan anda tidak mengisi perhubungan dengan kenikmatan seks. Interaksi itu yang mengisi badan anda dengan kenikmatan seks. Kenikmatan tidak berasal daripada rangsangan fizikal genital atau daripada kemungkinan beranakkan Bill Gates yang seterusnya. Pada kebanyakan dasar pertimbangan waras, kenikmatan seks berasal daripada kerjasama yang selaras antara manusia. Keseluruhan perhubungan manusia itu lebih besar daripada penglibatan bahagian individu, iaitu memiliki semangat tidak luntur yang lebih baik, kearifan yang lebih hebat dan keseronokan lebih dalam. Dengan itu, kita mencari keseluruhan itu di mana-mana sahaja, termasuk pada seks.
Pada akhirnya, seks sememangnya nikmat kerana melalui itu, kita mampu mengatasi kesepian dan membentuk ikatan yang bermakna dengan manusia yang lain.
Terjemahan daripada : https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/insight-therapy/201204/why-do-we-have-sex